October 28, 2005
The quest for religious identity and military security has been an integral part of Pakistan's history and has influenced political developments since the country's independence in 1947. The long standing relationships between Islamist groups and Pakistan's military have been complex and often troubling. Pakistan's military has sought U.S. support by making itself useful for concerns of the moment, while continuing to strengthen the mosque-military alliance within the country.
Ambassador Husain Haqqani is a Visiting Scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington DC and Director of the Center for International Relations at Boston University. He is also Co-Chairman of the Hudson Institute's Project on Islam and Democracy. Born in Karachi, Pakistan, Ambassador Haqqani acquired traditional Islamic learning as well as a modern education in International Relations. His journalism career started with work as East Asian correspondent for Arabia - The Islamic World Review during the turbulent years following the Iranian revolution. During this period he wrote extensively on Muslims in China and East Asia and Islamic political movements. Later, as Pakistan and Afghanistan correspondent for the Far Eastern Economic Review, he covered the war in Afghanistan and acquired deep understanding of militant Islamist Jihadi groups. Ambassador Haqqani also has had a distinguished career in government. He served as an advisor to Pakistani Prime ministers Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, Nawaz Sharif, and Benazir Bhutto. From 1992 to 1993 he was Pakistan's ambassador to Sri Lanka. He has contributed to numerous international publications, including The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, International Herald Tribune, Foreign Policy and The Financial Times. He regularly comments on Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Islamic politics and extremism on BBC, C-Span, CNN, NBC, Fox News and ABC. He has also written and spoken extensively on U.S. relations with the Muslim world. Recent publications include America's New Alliance with Pakistan: Avoiding the Traps of the Past (Policy brief, Carnegie Endowment, 2002); The Gospel of Jihad (Foreign Policy, September-October 2002); Islam's Medieval Outposts (Foreign Policy, November-December 2002); The American Mongols (Foreign Policy, May-June 2003); Islam's Weakened Moderates (Foreign Policy, July-August 2003); Political Islam beyond the Middle East: Pakistan and Afghanistan (in Political Islam: Challenges for U.S. Policy, Aspen Institute, July 2003). He has written chapters in several books. His book, Pakistan between Mosque and Military was published in July 2005.