Weather Education
[ACON Data| WBCR| CoCoRaHS| PRESTO| Conversion Factors| Glossaries/Guides| Weather Resources| U.S. Maps]

Welcome to the JHU/APL Weather Education page. This page provides weather data summaries and other helpful information that can be used in the classroom and for research and personal interest to increase your general knowledge about weather in general and our local area weather in particular. For example, here are links to often-requested APL historical weather observations from the JHU/APL weather station from June 1996 to January 2012 and tables of APL sunrise and sunset times from 1996-2020. Links to daily observations from the Atlantic Coast Observer Network (ACON) and temperature, precipitation, and climate data from the Washington-Baltimore Climate Review (WBCR) are also available. National Weather Service monthly weather summaries for the Washington, DC - Baltimore, MD area are given in the "PRESTO" link. A table of meteorological conversion factors is provided to convert between the most commonly used weather units. There is also a set of links to various weather glossaries and instructional material on the Web. Be sure to check back periodically as additions to this page are made in the future.

ACON Weather Data

Historical weather observations from the Atlantic Coast Observer Network (ACON) are archived since January 1992 for Maryland, Delaware, Washington, DC, and a few other nearby areas.

ACON weather observation summaries are available in four different file types: a monthly summary report, a monthly statistical data summary, a daily temperature observation table, and a daily precipitation observation table.

MD/DE/DC ACON data files

If you are interested in joining the MD/DE/DC chapter of ACON, click here to obtain more information.

Links to historical weather data from other ACON chapters:

ACON MA/RI Chapter (Chapter closed in 2007)

From time to time, interesting weather and observing topics will be placed below. Just click on the links in the following list to obtain the topic of interest.

•  National Weather Service Snow Measurement Guidelines  (0.3 MB)
•  Compilation of Snowfall Measuring Guidance During Blowing and Drifting Snow Events  (0.4 MB)
•  Gamber and Finksburg, MD Area EF1 Tornado - June 1, 2012  (1.3 MB)
•  October 29, 2011 Northeastern U.S. Snowstorm  (9.0 MB)
•  Overview of October Northeastern U.S. Snowstorms  (0.8 MB)
•  October 10, 1979 Northeastern U.S. Snowstorm  (6.8 MB)
•  October 17, 1977 Northeastern U.S. Snowstorm  (1.2 MB)
•  October 19, 1972 Northeastern U.S. Snowstorm  (0.5 MB)
•  October 19, 1940 Northeastern U.S. Snowstorm  (0.3 MB)
•  October 30, 1925 Northeastern U.S. Snowstorm  (5.5 MB)
•  Evaluation of East Coast Blizzard of January 22-23, 2016 (NOAA/NWS)   (2.6 MB)

Washington-Baltimore Climate Review (WBCR)

The WBCR is a detailed monthly report of weather observations, event highlights, and analyses derived from weather observers in the Washington, DC-Baltimore, MD area. After decades of being distributed only as paper copies, a few WBCR reports are available in electronic format. Copies of the WBCR reports will be made available on this web site as they are compiled and scanned. Notice: at the present time, updated electronic copies of the WBCR have ceased. If they resume at some point, this space will indicate their return. Click on the link below to direct you to the WBCR report archives.

WBCR Reports

From time to time, interesting weather and observing topics will be extracted from the WBCR reports and other sources and will be placed below. Just click on the links in the following list to obtain the topic of interest.

•  Preferred Thunderstorm Patterns Over the DC-Baltimore Area, March 2004   (3.5 MB)
•  Washington, DC Metro Area Precipitation and Temperature Patterns, June 1968 (9.0 MB)

Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow (CoCoRaHS) Network

CoCoRaHS is a grassroots volunteer network of backyard weather observers of all ages and backgrounds working together to measure and map precipitation (rain, hail and snow) in their local communities. By using low-cost measurement tools, stressing training and education, and utilizing an interactive Web-site, CoCoRaHS aims to provide the highest quality data for natural resource, education and research applications. The only requirements to join are an enthusiasm for watching and reporting weather conditions and a desire to learn more about how weather can effect and impact our lives.

If you want to find out more about CoCoRaHS, are interested in joining, or would like to view precipitation reports, click here to obtain more information.

•  For the Maryland and Washington, DC CoCoRaHS newsletter and current data, click here.

Precipitation Summary and Temperature Observations (PRESTO)

•  For monthly National Weather Service summaries of the Washington, DC - Baltimore, MD area, click here.

Meteorological Conversion Factors

• Table of commmon conversion factors used in meteorology.

Weather Glossaries and Instructional Guides

Listed below are links that will connect you to various web sites containing weather glossaries, definitions, and instructional guides:

CoCoRaHS Lesson Plans and Education Links (CoCoRaHS)
Weather Glossary (Weather Channel)
National Weather Service Glossary (NOAA/NWS)
Glossary of National Hurricane Center Terms (NOAA/NHC)
Definitions of Weather Watches, Advisories, and Warnings (NWS/Sterling, VA)
NWS JetStream - Online School for Weather (NOAA/NWS)
American Meteorological Society DataStreme Atmosphere (AMS)
Online Meteorology Guide (UIUC)
Weather Map Symbols (AMS)
Weather Basics (Weather Dude)
Weather Photography (
How to Measure Snowfall (CoCoRaHS)   (5.0 MB)
How to Build Your Own Weather Station (NOAA/NOS)   (1.4 MB)

Other Weather Resources

The links below will connect you to web sites that contain additional weather resources:

NOAA/NWS Free Publications (NOAA/NWS)
NOAA/NWS Education Resources (NOAA/NWS)
Learning Resources for Educators (NOAA/NSSL)
AMS Education Resources (AMS)
Guide to Meteorology Resources (
Meteorology Resources (Garden Centre Direct)
The Weather Resource Page (MJJ Sales)
Earth's Atmosphere (UCAR Center for Science Education)
Tornado Facts and Safety Tips (
Tornado Protection and Survival Guide (The Truckers Report)
Kids' Guide to Tornadoes (Air Oasis)
Tornado Preparedness (U.S. Insurance Agents)
Tornado Safety and Preparedness (SafeStars)
The Water Cycle for Kids (
The Air & Water Cycle for Kids (Florida AC Dealers)
Weather Central for Kids (Athens AC)
Student's Guide to Global Warming (Let's Go Solar)
The Ultimate Weather Resource Guide (Areavibes)
NOAA/NASA SciJinks Weather Adventures (NOAA/NASA)
Preparing for Mother Nature (Veritas Prep)
Weather Guide to Lightning (Sewell Direct)
Electricity and the Science of Lightning (Widespread Electrical Sales)
The Ultimate Winter Driving Guide (Car Insurance Calculator Online)
The Homeowner's Hurricane Safety Guide (Insurance Quotes)
Preparing for Natural Disasters (
Guide to Natural Disaster and Severe Weather Safety (Alarm System Reviews)
Emergency Preparedness Guide for Natural Disasters (MoneyGeek)
Home Safety Guide to Natural Disasters (CreditCritics)
Emergency Preparedness in Schools (Accredited Schools Online)
Guide to Disaster Preparation (CouponChief)
Teach Emergency Preparedness in the Classroom (Emergency Essentials)
Emergency Preparedness for When You Sleep (Tuck Sleep)

Careers in Meteorology

These links will connect you to web sites on careers in meteorology and related fields:

Education and Careers in Meteorology (AMS)
Careers in Meteorology (The Weather Channel)
Careers in Meteorology (NOAA/NSSL)
Wages for Atmospheric and Space Scientists (US Dept. of Labor/BLS)
Salaries for Meteorologists (

Professional Meteorological Organizations

The following links will connect you to professional organizations in the field of meteorology:

American Geophysical Union (AGU)
American Meteorological Society (AMS)
American Meteorological Society - Washington, DC Chapter (DC-AMS)
Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (CMOS)
European Meteorological Society (EMS)
National Weather Association (NWA)
Royal Meteorological Society (RMS)
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

State Climatologist Offices

The following links will connect you to the offices of state climatologists:

Maryland (UMd)
Virginia (UVa)
Pennsylvania (PSU)
Delaware (UDel)
West Virginia (Marshall U)
Link to all state climatologists (AASC)

Color Landform Atlas of the U.S.

•  A variety of U.S. state maps produced by the JHU/APL Ocean Remote Sensing Group are found in this link. Included are color, shaded relief (elevation) maps, county maps, black and white maps, and archived satellite images. Click here to take you to the map page.