The Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest is an unclassified technical journal published quarterly by APL. The objective of the publication is to communicate the work performed at the Laboratory to its sponsors and to the scientific and engineering communities, defense establishment, academia, and industry.


Harry K. Charles Jr., Chair and Editor-in-Chief

Linda L. Maier-Tyler, Assistant Editor-in-Chief

James P. Christ, Member-at-Large

Miquel D. Antoine

Ra'id S. Awadallah

Benjamin H. Barnum

Joshua B. Broadwater

Jeffrey P. Hamman

David O. Harper

Mary Kae Lockwood

Zaruhi R. Mnatsakanyan

Neil F. Palumbo

Peter P. Pandolfini

William K. Peter

Charles E. (Terry) Schemm

James C. Spall


Karen M. Gosnell

Erin M. Richardson


Erin M. Richardson, Managing Editor

Kelly K. Livieratos, Assistant Managing Editor

Diane J. Dorsey, Art Director

Kenneth R. Moscati, Senior Illustrator

Editorial Support: Anne E. King and Peggy M. Moore

Illustration Support: Matthew D. Baughman, Annie M. Marcotte, Shannon E. Nelson, and Magda M. Saina

Front Cover Art: Kenneth R. Moscati

Inside Back Cover Art: Kenneth R. Moscati

Web Publisher: Erin M. Richardson

Photographers: Bill Rogers and Edward Whitman

Clearance Coordinator: Bonnie Cubbage-Lain

Production Assistant: Michele G. Tranter

The Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (ISSN 0270-5214) is published quarterly under the auspices of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099. The objective of the publication is to provide a summary of unclassified individual programs under way at JHU/APL. Subscriptions are free of charge but are provided only to qualified recipients (government employees and contractors, libraries, university faculty members, and R&D laboratories). Requests for individual copies, subscriptions, or permission to reprint the text and/or figures should be submitted to the Office of the Editor-in-Chief at the above address.

The following abstracting services currently cover the Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest: Chemical Abstracts; Current Contents; Science Citation Index; Engineering Village; and the following CSA abstracts: Aerospace and High Technology Database; Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts; Computer and Information Systems Abstracts; Electronics and Communications Abstracts; Mechanical and Transportation Engineering Abstracts; Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts; and Oceanic Abstracts.